By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)
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As with any of my scans, the intro and desk of contents are on the very finish of the PDF, in order that web page numbers within the TOC are accurate.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Be~oreite. See trachybasalt. benthos. Plant and animal marine life, both small and large, living within the waters of the sea or on the sea bed (see also pelagic (def. 2)). They are a fundamental part of the complex food chains that operate within marine environments. Benthos exist in numerous forms, the greatest variety occurring within the shallow-water environments associated with continental shelves. In the *photic zone, the benthos feed on both phytoplankton and zooplankton; they are especially well developed in plankton-rich- areas and often poorly developed in less fertile areas.
Much of the lime in seawater originates from river discharge. An analysis of marine deposits shows that, in general, neritic sediments tend to have a far lower lime content than pelagic deposits. Also, in general, lime present in surface waters of the sea is of low concentra- cambering tion, perhaps because of its consumption by minute plankton, while average lime concentrations near the sea floor increase markedly. For example, sediments in the Atlantic Ocean that lie below 3000 m are very lime-rich.
Bioturbation. The reworking and further degradation of sediment by the action of organisms moving through it and feeding on it. birds. See Aves. bird's foot delta. An elongated form of *delta, with sediment deposited in a finger-like pattern following the courses of the various distributary streams. birefringence. The double refraction of light entering an anisotropic crystal, when it is split into two plane polarized rays, the ordinary and extraordinary rays. The two rays vibrate in mutually perpendicular planes and travel through the crystal in different directions and with different velocities (there is a fast ray and a slow ray) and thus have different refractive indices.
A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)