By J. P. Jones, P. A. N. Chandraratna, T. Tak, S. Kaiser, E. Yigiter, J. Gallet (auth.), Hua Lee, Glen Wade (eds.)
How to provide pictures with sound has intrigued engineers and scientists for a few years. Bats, whales and dolphins can simply get sturdy psychological photographs with acoustical power, yet people have little common skill for acquiring such pictures. The heritage of engineering and technological know-how, despite the fact that, is a powerful demonstration that technological suggestions can compensate, after which a few, for deficiencies of nature in people. therefore with the right kind expertise, we can also "see" with sound. Many equipment involv ing ultrasonic strength might be hired to allow us to take action. Few of those tools are in any respect resembling the acoustic platforms hired through animals. Pulse-echo, phase-amplitude and amplitude-mapping techniques represent the conceptual bases for 3 essentially kinds of acoustic imaging platforms and will be used for categorizing the structures. even though, by means of now platforms exist that mix the ways in such subtle methods as to make an unambiguous categorization of a few of the extra complex platforms tricky or most unlikely. one of the tools thus far professional duced are mechanically-scanning targeted tools, chirped pulse-echo tools, and tools related to holography, tomography, parametric excitation, section conju gation, neural networks, random section transduction, finite aspect tools, Doppler frequency moving, pseudo inversion, Bragg diffraction and mirrored image, and a number of alternative ideas. The fifty-five chapters during this quantity are chosen from papers awarded on the Eighteenth foreign Symposium on Acoustical Imaging which was once held in Santa Barbara, California on September 18 - 20, 1989.
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Sections are taken from the central part of the specimen, the back surface and the front surface, with the intention of eventually summing these to obtain an approximation to the integral of the histological properties through the whole 7 mm thick slice. All sections are stained for components which are suspected as being potentially important in determining the acoustic characteristics. By scanning the section and using a process of colour subtraction, a computerised microscope can build up a quantitative picture of the spatial distribution of any histological component for which a suitable colour stain exists.
14 respectively. 193 (2) where p = density in glcc and c = sonic veloci~y in kmVsec. The points plotted on the line in Fig 1 were taken from the cited reference. 5. The reflection ratio fram the surface of dentin-like rraneralized tissues in water as a function of wet density is shown in Fig 1. It can be seen t~t the reflected wave pressure amplitude is quite sensitive to the rraneral content of dentin-like tissue. 48. This estimate shows that a small change in rraneral content of the tissue surface will markedly change the amplitude of the reflected pressure wave.
It shows a thin well mineralized layer and under this layer is the darker demineralized subsurface lesion. Dentin lesions develop the same pattern of demineralization. The results given in Figs 7 and 8 are in agreement with this hypothesis within the limitations of the data. The decrease in the reflection ratio at the outset i~ Fig 7 indicates that the surface of the lesion undergoes a loss of mineral using the information fram Fig 1. The subsequent increase in the reflection ratio would correspond to redeposited mineral.
Acoustical Imaging by J. P. Jones, P. A. N. Chandraratna, T. Tak, S. Kaiser, E. Yigiter, J. Gallet (auth.), Hua Lee, Glen Wade (eds.)