By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to 1 of the few civilizations on the planet that has had a continuing culture of philosophical notion for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology constructed within the center a while, a lot of its faculties interacted with latest Persian philosophical currents and developed right into a detailed philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been a variety of Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented the following. vital decisions from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are integrated within the quantity, a lot of that have by no means sooner than been to be had in translation within the West beforehand.
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Additional info for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
36. 33 34 Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and dryness are all subtle bodies. He also held that the locus of colour is the same as the locus of taste and smell, and that the subtle bodies could occupy the same locus. Moreover, accidents are not susceptible of opposition; since opposition arises between different bodies, such as hot and cold, black and white, sweet and sour, all of which are bodies corrupting each other. ’ 2. Latency (kumūn) and Interpenetration ‘Ibrāhīm al-Naẓẓām held that everything may penetrate its opposite or counterpart.
Because of its nature as well as its long history, Muʿtazilism is of much significance in the development in Persia of both philosophical theology and philosophy itself. In the early period of the rise of Islamic philosophy in Baghdad, Muʿtazilism provided a congenial atmosphere for the rise of the rational sciences including philosophy. Later its theses became a challenge to philosophers. Many of the tenets first discussed by the Muʿtazilites such as atomism, the relation between free will and determinism and the rapport between transcendence (tanzīh) and immanence (tashbīh) provided philosophical challenges which were answered by philosophers from Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā to Mullā Ṣadrā and Sabziwārī.
Moreover, his views were often distorted by later writers, especially Ibn al-Rāwandī although some authorities such as al-Khayyāṭ in his Kitāb al-intiṣār and al-Ashʿarī in his Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn give a much more objective account. Abu’l-Hudhayl trained many students, foremost among them his own nephew al-Naẓẓām, who was deeply influenced by the master, although he disagreed with him on the interpretation of atomism. The influence of Abu’l-Hudhayl continued beyond his own students to embrace all later phases of the development of Muʿtazilism.
An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi