By Oliver Leaman
Even supposing Islamic philosophy represents some of the most vital philosophical traditions on the planet, it has simply particularly lately started to obtain awareness within the non-Islamic international. this can be a re-creation of a winning introductory publication, elevated and up-to-date to take account of contemporary scholarship. It makes a speciality of what's considered as Islamic philosophy's golden age, and may entice scholars and to any normal reader drawn to this philosophical culture.
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Although not a Muslim, his arguments are excellent examples of falsafa. The topics he is concerned with are often the same as those of falsafa and he has a well-developed skill of summarizing neatly the philosophical debate up to his time. His arguments are interesting and mesh closely with those of the other thinkers discussed. He is very much part of the continuing debate which took place in the Islamic world in a philosophical form, a debate which more or less came to an end with the death of Averroes.
Since the soul is not composite, it is not subject to dissolution. The eternal soul can suffer penalties and rewards in a life after death as a result of the actions of the individual during this life. We have a choice between good and evil, and we are punished or rewarded in accordance with our actions in this world. Like most of the Islamic philosophers, Avicenna seems to adhere to a theory of the next life which can be understood by all people, regardless of their intellectual capacities. Those capable of intellectual thought will understand salvation in terms of rational improvement, and will not need to be motivated by the corporeal language of the afterlife in the Qur’¯an Introduction to motivate them appropriately.
Progressive refinement of our ideas leads to the point where the Active Intellect is able to work with us to produce the rational universals. All efforts by human beings to know can rise no further than the Active Intellect, which represents the basic structure of reality as emanated from God, the pure intellect. At this stage in the hierarchy of emanation, we reach a level of reality which is no longer powerful enough to generate an intelligence and soul. Rather, emanation generates from the Active Intellect a multiplicity of human beings and sublunary matter.
An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman