By William F. Sater Ph.D. MA AB
The yr 1879 marked the start of 1 of the longest, bloodiest conflicts of nineteenth-century Latin the United States. The warfare of the Pacific pitted Peru and Bolivia opposed to Chile in a fight initiated over a festering border dispute. The clash observed Chile’s and Peru’s armored warships vying for keep watch over of sea lanes and integrated one of many first examples of using naval torpedoes. On land, huge armies utilizing the main glossy weapons—breech-loading rifles, Gatling weapons, and steel-barreled artillery—clashed in battles that left hundreds of thousands of fellows useless at the battlefields. finally, the opponents remodeled their respective army institutions, growing a lot wanted, civilian-supported offer, transportation, and clinical devices. Chile finally prevailed. Bolivia misplaced its seacoast in addition to necessary nitrate and copper deposits to Chile, and Peru used to be compelled to cede mineral wealthy Tarapaca and the province of Arica to the victor. Employing the first and secondary assets of the international locations concerned, William F. Sater deals the definitive research of the conflict's naval and armed forces campaigns. Andean Tragedy not just areas the battle in a vital overseas context, but in addition explains why this devastating clash led to a Chilean victory. (20080801)
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Additional resources for Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884 (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar)
Railroads also played a role but not to the same degree as in North America or western Europe, in part, because neither Santiago nor Lima possessed extensive rail systems. Chile’s railroad transported men and supplies from its Central Valley to the capital and then to Valparaíso, where they embarked to sail north. Peru’s main rail line, which ran from the seaport of Callao to Lima and then to the foothills of the altiplano, would not prove as useful because it did not reach the heavily populated Andean area.
8 529 578 813 421 421 312 400 450 Lima/Callao Cuzco Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Cavalry Rgt. Húsares de Junín Rgt. Lanceros de Torata Rgt. Guías 232 435 166 Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Lima/Callao Artillery Rgt. Artillería de Campaña Rgt. 2 de Mayo 30 guns 333 467 Lima/Callao Cuzco Total 5,557 Sources: Cáceres, Guerra del 79, 13–16; Paz Soldán, Narración histórica, 110. tine threat in addition to ﬁghting the war in the north. To accommodate these manpower needs Chile, like Peru and Bolivia, would rely upon press-gangs to recruit men forcibly.
With peace restored to the Paciﬁc, a new Bolivian government under Gen. Mariano Melgarejo tried again in 1866 to solve the boundary issue. Santiago, perhaps in thrall to the spirit of “Americanism,” agreed to accept the twentyfourth parallel as the border. Chile, however, retained the right to share equally in the revenues generated by anyone exploiting those minerals mined in the territory located between the twenty-third and twenty-ﬁfth parallels. By the early 1870s numerous Chile-based companies mined not only guano but also, increasingly, nitrates from the Atacama.
Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884 (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar) by William F. Sater Ph.D. MA AB